Biodynamic since 1989. In 1904 Emile Fleury was the first to plant grafted pinot noir vines in the area post-phylloxera. In 1929 his son Robert decided to make single-vintage champagnes. Subsequently, Jean-Pierre Fleury was the first grower in Champagne to convert to biodynamics. He began with just 3 hectares, then in 1992 the whole estate. The Fleury vineyards are located on chalky slopes on both sides of the Seine valley, 90% planted with pinot noir and the rest with chardonnay.